Reading Comprehension 1

Reading Comprehension 2
Reading Comprehension 2
Przeczytaj uważnie tekst i wykonaj podane niżej ćwiczenia

Malaria the Killer

Malaria is one of the world’s biggest killers. Every year, an estimated 250 million people are affected by the disease. In sub-Saharan Africa most of the population is frequently infected and a measure of resistance develops, with the result that those over five years of age are usually able to survive an attack. Young children, however, suffer enormously. In Africa, the disease kills a million children every year.
Global eradication of malaria has failed because the measures available to combat it are expensive, and, in some cases, must be applied indefinitely. As most of the countries at risk are poor they can’t afford the constant expense. The problem is compounded by the growing resistance to drugs and insecticides. New ones must be found to replace those that become less effective.
Malaria is caused by single-cell parasites called Plasmodium. There are four types which cause malaria in humans. The most serious symptoms are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is also the most common in Africa. Malarial parasites are injected into the bloodstream by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. A mosquito becomes infected with parasites after ingesting them from an infected person.
Once in a person’s bloodstream, the parasites travel to the liver, where they grow and multiply. After one to two weeks, mature parasites break out of the liver and invade red blood cells. Here they proliferate further and two or three days later each one is able to infect a new red blood cell. It is at this stage that fever occurs. Fever is usually accompanied by headache, nausea and abdominal pain.
Periodic symptoms may evolve through three stages: a cold stage (hard, shaking chills, and a rise in temperature): a hot stage (temperature rising to 102-105°F (39-40.5°C)), the skin warm and dry: and a sweating stage (as the temperature falls, drenching the clothes). The experience of these clinical symptoms encompasses pain, exhaustion, fatigue and extreme weakness.
Malaria can be controlled in several ways. As mosquitoes usually breed in still water, swamps and other watery areas can be drained. The eggs of mosquitoes hatch in water, and there the young or larvae can be killed by spraying oil on the surface of the pools so that they are unable to breathe. Another measure of protection is the spraying of insecticide in housed. Drugs do not prevent infection although they can suppress the development of malarial parasites in the blood.
Antimalarial measures must be sustained or they may do more harm than good. If the people in a treated area lose their immunity to the disease and then infected mosquitoes return, malaria may be fatal instead of just producing a mild fever. This is what happened on the central highlands of Madagascar in 1988 when an estimated 100.000 people died. It is one of the worst malaria epidemics on record.










Ćwiczenia

I. Siedem z dziesięciu podanych niżej wariantów to dokładne streszczenia siedmiu paragrafów tego tekstu. Napisz odpowiedni numer przy odpowiednim wariancie streszczenia.

A. Resistance to malaria. ________________
B. Malarial mosquitoes. ________________
C. Malaria: a world disease. ________________
D. How infection develops. ________________
E. How malaria is caused. ________________
F. Malarial symptoms. ________________
G. Malaria in the blood. ________________
H. How malaria can be controlled. ________________
I. The need for consistent policies. ________________
J. Why malaria has not been conquered. ________________

II. Wybierz właściwe dokończenie zdań:
1. A degree of immunity to malaria develops:
a. when people grow up;
b. if mosquitoes are eradicated;
c. through surviving attacks of the disease.

2. Mosquitoes:
a. are the cause of malaria;
b. act as carriers of parasites on people they bite and pass it on to others;
c. catch it from parasites on people, become feverish after.

3. After being infected with malaria, people become feverish after:
a. two or three days;
b. about week;
c. at least ten days.

4. The most definitive action which can be taken to control malaria is:
a. taking drugs to kill the parasites;
b. preventing mosquitoes from breeding;
c. disinfecting the house.

5. The epidemic in Madagascar was due to:
a. successful antimalarial measures having been discontinued;
b. antimalarial measures never having been taken;
c. mosquitoes becoming resistant to insecticides used.












Klucz do ćwiczeń

I. C1, E3, F5, G4, H6, I7, J2.
II. 1a, 2b, 3c, 4a, 5c.

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